Farming is a cultivation skill focusing on the growth and harvesting of fruits, vegetables, and/or grains. Farming also includes the raising of a variety of different animals, such a Cow, Yata (Kangaroo), Polar Bears, Goat, and Ducklings. The list goes on.
Depending on the stage of development, you may have a few different options to choose from.
Uproot- You uproot the plant, there is a chance you might get a seed or sapling; not a very high chance.
Water- Available to newly planted crops. Decreases growth time.
Harvest- Harvest the matured plant. Or in the case of an animal, you would collect what they have to offer. (With bees, you would collect honey)
The core of the farming skill is growing crops on farmland (or carefully on public land) and harvesting the mature plants for crafting materials used in cooking, husbandry, and similar related professions. Crops in ArcheAge grow at different speeds and players should maximize the usefulness of their farmland for greatest return-per-hour if they're looking to make money.
Many of the growable crops in ArcheAge are affected by climate, when you pull up your map the bottom right-hand corner will indicate the climate of the area you're in and crops should be planted in areas with climates optimal to their growth. Watering crops with buckets of water obtained at wells will also speed up the growing process.